Translation: transposing text from one language to another

Localization: adapt translations according to the region it is going to be used to ensure the target population feels represented and identified with the text

Audio Transcription: transposing audio files to text

Linguistic Validation: process of investigating the reliability, conceptual equivalence, and content validity of translations of patient-reported outcomes

Copy-editing: reviewing written materials for grammar, spelling, style, and punctuation issues before it goes to press